Research on political identity and moralityResearch on political identity and morality

Feb 15, 2024

 

Chapter 1:

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1. Which one does not belong: a human, a giraffe, and a car?
a) analytic thinker: human; holistic thinker: car
b) analytic thinker: giraffe; holistic thinker: human
c) analytic thinker: car; holistic thinker: giraffe
d) analytic thinker: car; holistic thinker: car
e) analytic thinker: giraffe; holistic thinker: giraffe

2. Analytic thinking is best characterized by
a) taxonomic categorization.
b) thematic categorization.
c) multiple-level categorization.
d) any form of categorization.
e) synthetically integrating theses and antitheses.

3. During a professional ice hockey game, fans from around the world saw Tony Bertram, a professional hockey player, punch an unsuspecting player in the face and throw him onto the ice. According to analytic versus holistic thinking styles, which of the following do you think is most likely to happen?
a) East Asians and Westerners will equally blame Tony’s family problems.
b) East Asians will blame Tony’s family problems, and Westerners will blame Tony’s nasty personality.
c) East Asians will blame Tony’s nasty personality, and Westerners will blame Tony’s family problems.
d) East Asians and Westerners will equally blame Tony’s nasty personality.
e) East Asians will blame Tony’s family problems, and Westerners will blame Tony’s teammates.

4. An American student, Ronald, and his Chinese friend, Rui, are looking up at the clear blue sky, where just a few clouds are visible. Coincidentally, the clouds are all grouped into one cluster just above Ronald and Rui. The two start naming shapes that they see in the clouds. According to cultural differences in attentional style, which of the following is most likely to happen in this scenario?
a) Rui will give more responses that are diagnostic of psychological disorders than Ronald.
b) Rui will give more visual descriptions than Ronald, who will give fewer descriptions in general.
c) Rui will give answers that are based more on the cluster of clouds than Ronald, who will base his answers more on a single cloud.
d) Rui will give more creative answers than Ronald, who will give more mundane answers.
e) Rui will give more colorful descriptions than Ronald, whose descriptions will be more black and white.

5. Which of the following most accurately portrays field dependence?
a) someone who is better at the relative-line task than the absolute-line task
b) someone who is better at the absolute-line task than the relative-line task
c) someone who is good at both the relative-line and the absolute-line tasks
d) someone who cannot do well on either the relative-line task or the absolute-line task
e) someone who performs inconsistently on the relative-line and absolute-line tasks across trials

6. People who are especially field dependent tend to be
a) introverted.
b) from Western cultures.
c) hunters or herders.
d) from large, industrialized cities.
e) holistic thinkers.

7. A Chinese art critic, Weiwei, and his American counterpart, William, are both looking at a painting of a group of people standing behind a vase in the middle foreground. If you were to compare the eye gazes of Weiwei and William, what would you find?
a) Their gazes initially start out in different places on the painting, but become more similar over time attending to an object.
b) William shifts his attention around more than Weiwei.
c) Weiwei and William describe the painting differently, but they are actually looking at the objects quite similarly.
d) William spends more time gazing at the vase than does Weiwei.
e) The people standing in the background appear blurrier to William than they do to Weiwei.

8. Two families are claiming to be the family of a lost mystery child. You are a judge who uses holistic reasoning, and must determine which family is the correct one. This is before the days of DNA analysis, so you must use family resemblance as your guide. Based on research about reasoning styles, what do you do to establish a familial relationship?
a) ask the child which group of people look the most familiar, to activate the child’s implicit memory
b) focus on one feature that is shared between one family and the child
c) consider what is best for the child and choose the family that looks wealthier
d) look at which family has approximately the same combination of features as the child
e) decide that the case cannot be determined because the two conflicting claims make them equally convincing

9. You are walking with your friend when both of you see a person on the street trip and fall. You think that the person is a clumsy person, but your friend thinks the person was distracted by something across the street. In this situation, which of the following more accurately captures what you are engaging in?
a) an argument
b) dispositional attribution
c) inferential judgment
d) conclusion making
e) field dependence

10. Analytic thinking is argued to be associated with
a) field dependence.
b) family resemblance reasoning.
c) dispositional attributions.
d) high horizons in drawings.
e) None of these answers is correct.

11. Contrasting the attributions made by Indians and Americans in research by Joan Miller reveals all of the following EXCEPT
a) Indians become increasingly likely to make situational attributions as they get older.
b) cultural differences in attributions are evident in young children as well as in adults.
c) Indian adults show evidence for a reverse fundamental attribution error.
d) Americans do not become increasingly likely to make situational attributions as they get older.
e) All of these statements are true.

12. Brittany is arguing with Michael about his article in the school newspaper, in which Michael advocates raising student tuition. Michael claims that Brittany is committing the fundamental attribution error. This means that Brittany did which of the following?
a) assumed that Michael was not really pro tuition increase, and agreed that Michael only wrote the article because the editor asked him to write the article
b) thought that Michael wrote the article equally because he is pro tuition increase and because he is personally pro tuition
c) thought that Michael’s perspective on tuition increase depended on the perspectives of people around him
d) ignored the fact that Michael was asked by the editor to write the article, and asserted that Michael wrote it only because he is personally pro tuition increase
e) thought that Michael’s perspective on tuition increase was due to both situational and dispositional attributions, in equal amounts

13. Mandia met a friend called Martina in university. Martina’s boyfriend likes to go to bars to drink, and makes Martina go to bars with him. Mandia knows that Martina’s boyfriend makes her go to bars, but still thinks that Martina goes because she likes to go to bars. The term that best describes Mandia’s thoughts is
a) situational attributions.
b) naïve dialecticism.
c) dispositional attributions.
d) articulatory suppression.
e) fundamental attribution error.

14. When it comes to analytic reasoning tasks, East Asians
a) choose family-resemblance responses if there is a conflict between rule and similarity-based judgments.
b) on average, have much difficulty with them relative to Westerners.
c) typically provide holistic answers.
d) are usually unable to solve them.
e) tend to be poorer at using analytical skills than Westerners.

15. Research on cultural differences in reasoning reveals that
a) East Asians use analytic reasoning strategies in most math and science problems.
b) Westerners are less likely to use analytic reasoning strategies than East Asians when there is a conflict between analytic and holistic solutions.
c) East Asians are more likely than Westerners to reason on the basis of abstract rules.
d) when there is a conflict between analytic and holistic solutions, Westerners are likely to make judgments based on similarity.
e) East Asians are unable to engage in analytic reasoning strategies.

16. Jade, a European-Canadian real estate agent, and Jing, a Chinese real estate agent, are trying to figure out what to tell their clients about the market’s outlook. Compared to Jade, Jing will
a) have predictions that are consistently more pessimistic.
b) have predictions that are consistently more optimistic.
c) have predictions that follow smoothly more from past patterns.
d) have predictions that are less linear given past patterns.
e) not be able to have predictions because multiple alternatives could be possible for East Asians.

17. Horatio and Gil are debating the legalization of marijuana. Horatio has a strong argument for legalization, while Gil has a weak argument against it. Zhang, a Chinese student, is watching the debate. Compared to how Zhang would perceive the arguments if he were to encounter just one argument, how will he perceive the arguments if they are both presented to him?
a) Zhang would be less confident that either argument is true.
b) Zhang would become more convinced that each argument is true.
c) Zhang would become less convinced that Horatio’s argument is true, but become more convinced that Gil’s argument is true.
d) Zhang would become more committed to his initial position, whatever it may be.
e) Zhang would become more convinced that Horatio’s argument is true, but become less convinced that Gil’s argument is true.

18. Ayumi is a Japanese student, and Alice is a European-Canadian student. They are both participating in a study in which they are asked to provide some self-descriptions. Which of the following is the likeliest outcome of this study?
a) Ayumi is likelier than Alice to say that she is an introverted person across different situations.
b) Ayumi is likelier than Alice to say that she is both considerate and selfish.
c) Ayumi is likelier than Alice to focus on her individual characteristics, such as intelligence.
d) Ayumi is likelier than Alice to be optimistic over the long term.
e) Ayumi is likelier than Alice to reference her physiological states.

19. Jeremy and Jason took a test to see how high their individualism and collectivism scores are. Jeremy’s individualism score is 9 out of 18, and his collectivism score is 11 out of 18. Jason’s individualism score is 12 out of 18, and his collectivism score is 8 out of 18. Which of the following statements is true?
a) Jeremy is likelier than Jason to engage in analytic reasoning.
b) Jason is likelier than Jeremy to engage in field dependence.
c) Jason is likelier than Jeremy to create novel inventions.
d) Both are equally likely to engage in naïve dialecticism.
e) Both are equally likely to engage in anthropocentrism.

20. You are leading a group of researchers from Japan and the United States to come up with a new invention based on current designs for the car, so that your company can submit a patent. Based on cultural differences in creative thinking, which of the following is the most likely to happen?
a) Japanese researchers’ preference for the status quo will lead them to think that current car designs are sufficient; American researchers will focus on making only slight adjustments to make cars more functional.
b) Japanese and American researchers will both focus on making revolutionizing changes to current car designs.
c) Japanese researchers will focus on making revolutionizing changes to current car designs; American researchers will want the status quo and keep current car designs.
d) Japanese and American researchers will both focus on making minor adjustments to current car designs to make cars more functional.
e) Japanese researchers will focus on making minor adjustments to cars to make them more functional; American researchers will focus on making revolutionizing changes to them.

21. Yasmin is an executive at a company, and she wants to hire the most creative applicant for a new position. She decides to hire someone from an individualistic culture because she feels that individualists are more creative than collectivists. You _____________ with her statement because _____________.
a) agree; the higher need for uniqueness among individualists makes them generally more creative than collectivists
b) disagree; being more concerned about improving the lives of others makes collectivists generally more creative than individualists
c) agree; the higher level of analytic thinking among individualists makes them generally more creative than collectivists
d) disagree; individualists and collectivists are better at different types of creative thinking
e) agree; having less naïve dialecticism makes individualists generally more creative than collectivists

22. The Department of Chemistry is trying to understand how people solve problems in organic chemistry classes. Students are given a series of complex organic chemistry problems to solve. Which of the following will characterize the students’ performance?
a) East Asian students will perform worse on the problems if they are asked to verbally articulate their thinking process, but their performance will be relatively unaffected if they recite their own names repeatedly.
b) Western students will perform worse on the problems if they are asked to verbally articulate their thinking process, or if they recite their own names repeatedly.
c) Verbally articulating their thought processes enhances the performance of East Asian students on the problems.
d) Reciting their names repeatedly enhances the performance of Western students on the problems.
e) Any student who verbally expresses anything unrelated to the problems will do poorly on them.

23. Comparisons of Asian Americans and Euro-Americans in their performance on Raven’s progressive matrices reveals that
a) Asian Americans tend to outperform Euro-Americans.
b) Euro-Americans do worse on the task if they are reciting the alphabet.
c) Euro-Americans consistently do better on the task if they are saying something than if they are silent.
d) Asian Americans do better on the task if they are reciting the alphabet than if they are silent.
e) thinking and talking are largely unrelated for Euro-Americans.

24. With which of the following is a low context culture most closely associated?
a) implicit communication
b) explicit communication
c) incremental theory of the world
d) entity theory of the self
e) incremental theory of self

25. Your roommate is from a high context culture. As a result, which of the following is most likely to be an exchange between the two of you?
a) You ask your roommate if you can use her hairdryer. She does not want you to, but she says, “I guess so,” with a very subtle disapproving expression.
b) Your roommate asks you if she can use your yoga mat, and you reply, “I will think about it,” because you are unsure.
c) Your roommate does not want you to practice dancing in the living room, so she leaves you a note on your door to let you know.
d) You ask your roommate why she seems upset with you, and she responds by telling you exactly what she is thinking, providing the whole context for you to understand.
e) Your roommate does not plan on coming home for dinner and calls ahead of time to tell you.

26. Which of the following examples most accurately portrays research on cultural differences in communication style?
a) Hamada and Matsumoto, who are both Japanese, communicate with each other only by complimenting each other and do not criticize each other.
b) Endo, who is Japanese, cannot reach his friend, Tanaka, because Tanaka’s cell phone is off, but Endo has great difficulty leaving messages on Tanaka’s voice mail.
c) Yamazaki, who is Japanese, much prefers to communicate with his friends by writing, more so than his American friend, Claudia.
d) Eric, who is American, is more likely to speak in an indirect, roundabout way with his friends than is Itao, who is Japanese.
e) Tetsuya, who is Japanese, prefers to write to his friends more so than does his American friend, Mike.

27. Recent fieldwork suggests that the Saami people (an indigenous people living in parts of northern Europe) have almost 100 words to describe various kinds of reindeer. English, on the other hand, has only a tiny fraction of words used to describe reindeer. According to the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, what cultural difference between English and Saami speakers would result from this disparity in reindeer-related vocabulary size?
a) English speakers are better able to identify the different odors of reindeer.
b) Saami speakers engage in spatial reasoning differently than English speakers.
c) English speakers have less numerical cognitive abilities than do Saami speakers.
d) Saami speakers are better able to categorize reindeer than English speakers.
e) English speakers view time as flowing in a different direction than do Saami speakers.

28. A researcher asks a participant to organize a series of pictures in temporal sequence. The person organizes the pictures so that the temporal sequence goes from right to left. Which of the following most likely describes the participant?
a) His mother language has a writing system that goes from left to right.
b) He is facing south and conceptualizes time as going from east to west.
c) He sees time as going from south to north, and is currently facing west.
d) He uses two spatial markers on his body-his head and his feet-to indicate how time passes.
e) He conceptualizes time as going from east to west, and is facing north.

29. Color terms from different cultures around the world
a) vary in arbitrary ways.
b) are pretty much the same everywhere, with the exception of colors in the blue-green spectrum.
c) vary in that some cultures only have color words for red and green, whereas other cultures only have color words for blue and yellow.
d) all correspond to a small number of different possible sets of terms.
e) do not consistently contain a word for “black.”

30. People from cultures that do not have words for numbers beyond two or three
a) can still detect changes in the number of objects in the same way as those who have words for a complete number set.
b) are unable to discriminate between different quantities.
c) are able to discriminate between rough proportions, but not for precise numbers.
d) can still do basic counting, but not basic addition or subtraction.
e) have no conception of what amount is visually greater than or smaller than another.

Chapter 2

1. According to the James-Lange theory of emotions, which of the following precedes an emotion in a scenario where Ed meets his boss for the first time?
a) the assumptions that Ed makes about past experiences with his previous bosses
b) how Ed interprets his profuse perspiration upon seeing his boss
c) the profuse perspiration that Ed experiences upon seeing his boss
d) how Ed appraises an event, but only if the event is relevant to other people
e) the disgust that Ed experienced upon seeing his boss

2. Which of the following is an example of someone defining emotions using the James-Lange theory of emotions?
a) Ryan thinks he is in love with Cheryl because she makes him happy every time he sees her.
b) Ryan thinks he is happy because it is one of the basic emotions.
c) Ryan thinks he feels sadness because his long-time pet had just passed away.
d) Ryan thinks he feels excitement because his heart was racing after having held his breath for a minute while under water in the pool.
e) Ryan thinks he feels fearful of sharks because his heart was racing after he encountered a shark during his dive, and he knew that the shark was dangerous.

3. The facial feedback hypothesis most closely approximates what theoretical perspective?
a) Ekman’s basic emotions
b) James-Lange theory of emotions
c) two-factor theory of emotions
d) interdependent self-construal
e) holistic thinking style

4. Leslie is going on a date and wants to maximize the likelihood of her date, Jessica, feeling happy about her. Leslie decides to take Jessica to watch a highly rated comedic film. Jessica feels very happy from the film, but attributes her happiness to Leslie. Which of the following explains Jessica’s attribution of her happiness to Leslie?
a) James-Lange theory of emotion
b) linguistic relativity of emotional experience
c) universal emotions
d) two-factor theory of emotions
e) facial feedback hypothesis

5. Davina was walking on the street when she happened to glance into a flower store. Upon seeing a particular flower through the window, she noticed that her heart rate sped up. To her, an increased heart rate means that she is excited, so she concluded that she must be feeling excited right now. A two-factor theorist would _____________ with her conclusion because _____________.
a) disagree; emotions cannot be determined from interpreting psychological reactions
b) disagree; she lacks the experience to determine what her psychological reactions mean
c) disagree; increased heart rate has nothing to do with being excited
d) agree; increased heart rate is always indicative of excitement
e) agree; seeing flowers always leads one to have excited feelings about them

6. Based on the results from Schacter and Singer’s experiment on the two-factor theory of emotion, under which of the following situations would Darryl feel the most excitement?
a) when he is with someone who is trying to get him to feel giddy
b) when he eats a sugar pill that he was told would make him feel aroused
c) when he ingests a stimulant that he was told would make him feel aroused
d) when he ingests a stimulant that he was told would not affect his arousal
e) when he ingests some stimulant that he was told would make him feel less aroused

7. Schacter and Singer’s study of emotions found that people
a) sense clear physiological indicators of anger but not of euphoria.
b) attend to situational cues to interpret their bodily sensations.
c) who took epinephrine felt the strongest emotions.
d) with independent views of self attend more to their bodily sensations than those with interdependent views of self.
e) have an accurate understanding about the link between their physiological states and their emotions.

8. Which of the following is NOT one of Ekman’s basic emotions?
a) pride
b) disgust
c) surprise
d) fear
e) All of these are basic emotions.

9. What can the basic emotions best be characterized as?
a) nonuniversals
b) at least existential universals
c) at least functional universals
d) ritualized displays
e) display rules

10. Because Mariana, a Brazilian woman, had a terrible morning, she was very angry when she got to work at the office. As a result, her facial expression greatly resembled the basic anger expression. She walked by two coworkers on her way to her desk: Felipe (who is Brazilian) and Satoru (who is Japanese). Which of the following is most likely to occur?
a) Both coworkers are equally likely to recognize that Mariana is angry.
b) Neither coworker will recognize that Mariana is angry.
c) Felipe is more likely than Satoru to focus on Mariana’s eyes in determining her emotional state.
d) Satoru is more likely than Felipe to recognize that Mariana is angry.
e) Felipe is more likely than Satoru to recognize that Mariana is angry.

11. Joon-ha, a Korean child, is trying to facially express that he is upset. Which of the following people would be best at identifying that Joon-ha is upset?
a) Person A, who is American
b) Person B, who is also feeling upset
c) Person C, who is able to ignore contextual cues
d) Person D, who is Korean
e) Person E, who is expressing sadness

12. Kartika abides by the idea that people should have emotional “smoothness.” This means that she
a) feels no emotions.
b) transitions easily from one emotion to another.
c) has emotional highs and lows.
d) tries to not have strong displays of emotions.
e) thinks that people should consistently feel positive emotions.

13. Shawn displays something that can be characterized as being a ritualized display of excitement. What does this imply?
a) Shawn had to practice a lot to be able to make this display.
b) Shawn did not need to learn to make this display.
c) Shawn dampened his expression of excitement so as to not upset those around him.
d) People from other cultures likely cannot recognize that he is excited.
e) This display is one of the expressions identified by Ekman and his colleagues.

14. The tendency for Indians to sometimes bite their tongues-an expression not recognized elsewhere-reflects
a) feelings of sadness.
b) a basic emotion.
c) a reflexive emotional expression.
d) a ritualized display.
e) an accessibility universal.

15. An expression that is considered a ritualized display is best categorized as a(n)
a) functional universal.
b) existential universal.
c) nonuniversal.
d) accessibility universal.
e) human universal.

16. Just for fun, Mary decided to tape the corners of her mouth so that she would appear to be smiling for the duration of that day. According to the facial feedback hypothesis, which of the following emotions is Mary most likely to experience as a result?
a) happiness
b) sadness
c) anger
d) disgust
e) surprise

17. A classroom is full of European-Canadians and Chinese-Canadians, and they are all watching a movie that is intended to induce a lot of anger. According to research oncultural differences in anger responses, one would expect
a) differences in the intensity of their facial expressions, but not in their emotional experiences.
b) the Chinese-Canadian students to not show any physiological anger response, whereas the European-Canadian students will.
c) differences in the rate at which their physiological responses will return to baseline.
d) that the Chinese-Canadian students will show more of an extreme physiological response, despite reporting being less angry than the European-Canadian students.
e) that the Chinese-Canadian students’ physiological responses will fluctuate much more than the European-Canadian students’ physiological responses.

18. Mike is an Asian-Canadian who just got shoved in the mall by another person. Compared to a European-Canadian who experiences the same thing, Mike is
a) more likely to dampen his physiological response to this event.
b) more likely to chase after the person who shoved him.
c) less likely to understand what happened to him.
d) less likely to understand why the man shoved him.
e) more likely to raise the issue with security guards on duty.

19. Mototeru is a Japanese teenager who reports feeling very positive emotions. According to research by Kitayama and colleagues on emotions associated with happiness, what other emotions is Mototeru likely experiencing for him to feel such positive emotions?
a) respect
b) shame
c) positive interpersonally disengaged emotions
d) negative interpersonally engaged emotions
e) happiness

20. Comparisons of Surinamese and Turkish immigrants to Holland with mainstream Dutch citizens of Holland reveal that
a) Surinamese and Turkish immigrants expressed more relational concerns than Dutch citizens.
b) Surinamese and Turkish immigrants display their emotions more intensely than Dutch citizens.
c) Surinamese and Turkish immigrants are less happy than Dutch citizens.
d) Surinamese and Turkish immigrants who were more acculturated had more similar emotional experiences to Dutch citizens than did those immigrants who were less acculturated.
e) None of these statements is true.

21. As an American exchange student in Japan, Michael is trying to understand the cultural differences that he is noticing. In particular, he finds that his new Japanese friend, Michiru, has very different emotional experiences than his European-American friends back home. Based on research regarding cultural differences in emotional experiences, which of the following is the likeliest difference for him to notice?
a) Michiru experiences more respect than his European-American friends.
b) Michiru experiences a broader range of emotions than his European-American friends.
c) Michiru feels better than his European-American friends when he is experiencing respect.
d) His European-American friends experience both shame and anger more than Michiru.
e) Michiru reports feeling more intense positive feelings than his European-American friends.

22. Different languages from around the world
a) all have words that correspond to the basic emotions, but often not for the nonbasic emotions.
b) sometimes do not have emotion words that correspond with each of the basic emotions.
c) may have words for the same emotions as in English, but do not necessarily experience those emotions similarly to English speakers.
d) all have hundreds of words to express different emotions.
e) all have a word for disgust.

23. Based on Kitayama and colleagues’ study of emotions among Japanese and Americans, one would expect that, between Jun, who’s Japanese, and Jerry, who’s American,
a) Jun would feel more happiness than Jerry.
b) Jun would feel more life satisfaction than Jerry.
c) Jun would feel more anger than Jerry.
d) Jun would feel more extreme emotions than Jerry.
e) Jun would feel more shame than Jerry.

24. Research reveals that, in contrast to Westerners, the most desired kinds of emotional states among East Asians are
a) low arousal positive states.
b) feelings of group pride.
c) feelings of interpersonal connection.
d) future positive emotional states.
e) purely positive affective states.

25. Which of the following situations would predict greater subjective well-being for Alex, who is from a collectivistic culture?
a) Alex’s parents are doing very well in their business.
b) Alex feels a great deal of excitement.
c) Alex has a vast network of friends.
d) Alex abides by his culture’s norms.
e) Alex receives a prize from his school’s prize draw.

26. Based on research about the different roles and functions of happiness across cultures, how can one categorize the assumption that people necessarily want to be happy?
a) It is an accessibility universal.
b) It is a naïve pursuit.
c) It is a nonuniversal.
d) It is a functional universal.
e) It is an existential universal.

27. Derp has lived a privileged life and has always had very high subjective well-being. He is ready to change-he wants to be unhappy and have low subjective well-being. Based on the dynamic social impact theory, to which region of the United States shouldDerp move if he wants to become less happy and have low subjective well-being?
a) East South Central
b) West North Central
c) West South Central
d) the Mountain West
e) New England

28. The relation between money and happiness is that
a) there is no relation between money and happiness.
b) people

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