Question 1. “Some dogs are not mammals” is which type of statement?

Universal affirmative

Universal negative

Particular affirmative

Particular negative

Invalid

Question 2. “A mammals is any creatures that breathe air, have hair, and breast-feed its young. Dolphins breathe air, have hair, and breast-feed their young. Therefore, dolphins are mammals.” This argument is __________.

a mathematical argument

an inductive argument

an explanation

an argument from definition

Question 3. What is the contrapositive of the statement “All sunsets are beautiful things”?

All non-beautiful things are non-sunsets.

All non-sunsets are not non-beautiful

All beautiful things are non-sunsets.

No beautiful things are sunsets.

None of these

Question 4. In a truth table, if P is true and Q is false then what is the truth value of “P « Q”?

True

False

Neither true nor false

Indeterminate

Question 5. You may know that an argument is valid if its Venn diagram shows which of the following?

Both subject and predicate

Subject term only

Predicate term only

Neither term

Question 6. “All bumblebees are smooglewumps” is which type of statement?

Universal affirmative

Universal negative

Particular affirmative

Particular negative

None of these

Question 7. What does it mean for an argument to be invalid?

It has a false premise.

It is possible for all of its premises to be true and its conclusion is false.

The conclusion is stronger than the premises.

The reasoning does not apply anymore.

Question 8. Identify the form of the following argument.

If the Honda plant increases production, then we will need to hire more workers.

If we need to hire more workers, then we need to revise the budget.

Therefore, if the Honda plant increases production, then we need to revise the budget.

Modus ponens

Modus tollens

Disjunctive syllogism

Hypothetical syllogism

Not a valid form

Question 9. In logic, which of the following is not true of all deductive arguments?

They reason from general to particulars.

They can be valid or invalid.

If they are valid, it is impossible to have true premises and a false conclusion.

If they are invalid, it is possible to have true premises and a false conclusion.

None of these

Question 10. How do we know that the conclusion of a sound argument is true?

We don’t, some sound arguments have false conclusions.

It is highly probable if the argument is strong enough.

The fact that it is true follows from the definition of soundness.

It is part of the definition of soundness .

Question 11. Which of the following would be a sound argument?

A valid argument with almost all true premises.

An argument with all true premises.

A valid argument with all true premises.

An argument in which the conclusion is definitely true.

An argument that just makes sense.

Question 12. In a truth table, if P is false and Q is true then what is the truth value of “P Ú Q”?

True

False

Neither true nor false

Indeterminate

Question 13. How can one tell if an argument is valid using a truth table?

All the lines contain false conclusions.

All the premises in all lines are true.

There is no line in which the premises are true and conclusion is false.

There is at least one line in which the premises are true and the conclusion is false.

None of these

Question 14. Negation is __________.

an “and” statement

an “if-then” statement

an “or” statement

an “if and only if” statement

None of these

Question 15. Which of the following is true of categorical statements?

They are always true.

They are not claims.

They always have an “and,” “not,” or “or.”

They have quantity and quality.

Question 16. What is the contrapositive of the statement “No bridges are buildings”?

No non-bridges are non-buildings.

No bridges are non-buildings.

All brides are not buildings.

No non-buildings are non-bridges.

None of these

Question 17. “Some computers are Macs” is which type of statement?

Universal affirmative

Universal negative

Particular affirmative

Particular negative

None of these

Question 18. A categorical statement is one that _____________.

makes a statement about two categories

is a statement of propositional logic

is part of a valid argument

is always true

Question 19. Select the proper symbolization of the following statement, where A is “my cat likes fruits” and B is “my cat likes vegetables.”

My cat likes neither fruits nor vegetables.

~A ∨ ~B

~A → ~B

~(A ∨ B)

~(A → B)

None of these

Question 20. Select the proper symbolization of the following statement, where A is “humans love what they see in themselves,” B is “they can see beauty in others,” and C is “they understand love.”

If humans understand love then they love what they see in themselves if and only if they can see beauty in others.

(A → B) → C

C & (A ↔ B)

(A & B) ↔ C

C → (A ↔ B)

None of these