Which type of thinking is most closely related to creativityWhich type of thinking is most closely related to creativity

Feb 15, 2024

 

1. The process of getting information out of memory storage is called

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priming

encoding

relearning

retrieval

rehearsal

2. A flashbulb memory of an emotional event would typically be stored in ________ memory.

iconic

implicit

short-term

state-dependent

long-term

3. The ability to perform more than one complex encoding tasks simultaneously demonstrates the importance of

effortful processing

automatic processing

mood congruent memory

flashbulb memory

working memory

4. Our inability to remember information presented in the seconds we either first wake up or just before we fall is most likely due to

motivated forgetting

retrieval failure

retroactive interference

encoding failure

proactive interference

5. In order to remember to buy sausage, ham, onions, and parsley for his pasta sauce, Enzo forms the word “shop” with the first letter of each item. Enzo is using a memory aide known as

the method of loci

the next-in-line effect

the serial position effect

chunking

imagery

6. A telephone number for a new upscale restaurant flashes on the movie screen, but the image disappears before Aaron has the opportunity to write it down. To his surprise, Aaron retains a momentary mental image of the last four digits of the number. Aaron’s experience demonstrates __________ memory.

echoic

iconic

implicit

explicit

short-term

7. Echoic memory refers to

the encoded meanings of words and events in long-term memory

a vivid memory of an emotionally significant event

the automatic retention of incidental information about the timing and frequency of events

a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli

a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli

8. Which type of memory has an essentially unlimited storage capacity?

echoic memory

iconic memory

short-term memory

long-term memory

state-dependent memory

9. Mood-congruent memory refers to the effect of emotional states on the process of

repression

encoding

storage

retrieval

relearning

10. A person who has trouble forgetting information, often seems to have a limited capacity for

declarative memory

implicit memory

semantic memory

abstract thinking

creativity

11. After learning the combination to his new locker for baseball, Robert is unable to remember the combination for his school locker. Robert is experiencing the effects of

proactive interference

retroactive interference

source amnesia

memory decay

encoding failure

12. The misinformation effect best illustrates the effect of

retrograde amnesia

memory construction

repression

anterograde amnesia

mood-congruent memory

13. The greatest threat to the credibility of children’s recollections of sexual abuse is posed by

proactive interference

the spacing effect

the misinformation effect

long-term potentiation

retroactive interference

14. Speed-reading complex information produces little long-term retention because it inhibits

the next-in-line effect

the serial position effect

retroactive interference

proactive interference

rehearsal

15. The AP Psychology exam given by the College Board in May exemplifies which of the following types of exams?

aptitude

intelligence

projective

achievement

personality

16. Most New Yorkers remember where they were and what they were doing when they heard the World Trade Center was destroyed. This type of memory is

implicit memory

déjà vu

explicit memory

semantic memory

flashbulb memory

17. Harlowe forgot her pillow when she went to a sleepover, so she complained about having to sleep with her head flat on the ground the entire night. Her failure to fold up her bathrobe and jeans to use as a pillow-substitute best illustrates the effects of

belief perseverance

representativeness heuristic

availability heuristic

functional fixedness

confirmation bias

18. Rather than using a shortcut to find various possible combinations of, Jude systematically lists every possible combination to determine the correct code. Jude is solving his problem by the use of

trial and error

the availability heuristic

the representativeness heuristic

an algorithm

confirmation bias

19. You ask a student to describe the path to his dorm room. The most likely way in which he will do this is to _________.

recite a rote list of directions he memorized

give you the GPS location of his dorm room

walk through a mental image of the path and describe it to you as he does it

all of these

none of these

20. Concepts are ideas that represent ___________.

a class or category of objects, events, or activities

patterns of behavior

higher-order conditioning and secondary reinforcers

all of these

none of these

21. Which example would most people take longest to identify as a fruit (even though it technically is a fruit)?

grape

apple

banana

orange

olive

22. A seemingly arbitrary flash “out of the blue,” through which the solution to a problem suddenly becomes apparent to you, but you do not consciously know how you “figured it out,” is called ______.

brainstorming

priming

transformation

a mental set

insight

23. Agatha Harkness-Smythe is determined to ban guns in the United States. This is a controversial topic and social scientists have debated whether the ownership of guns by citizens increases or decreases crime. Agatha could go to the library and look up studies on the linkage between guns and crime rates. Instead, Agatha just reads the local newspaper and only cuts out articles about robberies in which the “bad guy” used a firearm. Agatha is demonstrating a ____________.

mental set

confirmation bias

stereotype threat

mindlessness

convergent thinking

24. ___________ thinking works pretty well for routine problem solving, but may be of little use when a more creative solution is needed.

Heuristic

Divergent

Insightful

Latent

Convergent

25. What type of thinking could be described as taking different directions in search of a variety of answers to a question?

decisive

convergent

heuristic

divergent

functional

26. Which type of thinking is most closely related to creativity?

heuristic

divergent

insightful

convergent

functional

27. Charles Spearman believed that intelligence is composed of ____________.

verbal and mathematical abilities

crystallized and visual-motor abilities

general intelligence and specific abilities

analytical, creative, and practical intelligence

crystallized and fluid abilities

28. A theory of intelligence with nine components was postulated by ________.

Gardner

Spearman

Sternberg

Terman

Binet

29. Shalissa is described as being tactful and able to manipulate situations to her advantage. She is probably high in ______________.

analytical intelligence

creative intelligence

practical intelligence

general intelligence

none of these

30. According to Robert Sternberg, which type of intelligence is least likely to predict success in an academic environment?

analytical intelligence

creative intelligence

practical intelligence

general intelligence

none of these

31. The correct formula for determining IQ as used in Terman’s development of the Stanford-Binet Test was ____________.

MA/CA x 10

MA/CA x 100

MA/CA

CA/MA x 100

CA/MA x 10

32. Jordan is a 10-year-old boy who has a mental age of 8 years. His IQ would be ________.

80

100

115

125

140

33. Most standardized tests of intelligence have a distribution of scores that _________.

follows the normal curve

has a positive skew

has a negative skew

appears bimodal with two peaks of high frequency

is rectangular

34. Many items on a “culture-fair” test require the use of _______________.

verbal knowledge

musical knowledge

knowledge of major world historical figures

motor skills

nonverbal abilities such as rotating objects

35. Which of the following is a desirable characteristic of culture-fair tests?

They should minimize or eliminate the use of language.

They should not attempt to measure intelligence.

They should be composed of items that vary from culture to culture.

They should measure values based on a person’s cultural background.

They should consist of tasks that require manual dexterity.

36. Which of the following people would be classified as having a profound developmental delay?

someone with an IQ in the 55-70 range

someone with an IQ below 25

someone who can perform basic self-care without supervision

someone who performs at only a second-grade educational level

someone who can work at a sheltered workshop

37. All parents think their little kids are geniuses. However, to be classified as a genius, the IQ score must be above __________.

120

130

140

150

180

38. Which of the following statements about gifted people is true?

They are more likely to suffer from mental illnesses.

They are physically weaker than non-gifted persons.

They are socially unskilled.

They have poor motor skills.

They are often skilled leaders.

39. Which of the following groups of children is most likely to have the most similar IQ scores?

identical twins reared apart

same-sex fraternal twins

siblings reared together

fraternal twins reared together

identical twins reared together

40. When we consider intelligence, it is important to remember that although _______ sets limits on a child’s potential, it is the _______ that permits that potential to be actualized.

learning; opportunity

opportunity; learning

heredity; environment

environment; heredity

opportunity; heredity

41. The rules that determine how sounds and words can be combined and used to communicate meaning within a language are collectively known as ______.

morphemic rules

phonemic rules

linguistic relativity

syntax

grammar

42. The system of rules for combining words and phrases to make meaningful sentences is called ____________.

morphology

phonics

syntax

phonology

grammar

43. How many morphemes are there in the sentence “I predicted it”?

three

four

six

five

seven

44. What are the smallest units of meaning in a language?

words

syntax

syllables

phonemes

morphemes

45. You are learning Russian in preparation for a trip next summer. Although you are doing a good job recognizing the written signs you need to know, you are having trouble with the sounds of the Russian language. Which of the following aspects of language is giving you trouble?

syntax

phonemes

morphemes

audiograms

pragmatics

46. A famous lecturer argues that because the Hopi Indians have only two nouns for things that fly, one for birds and another for nonbirds, the Hopi MUST interpret all flying things in terms of these two nouns. This argument is based on ______.

the idealized prototype construct

bottom-up processing

top-down processing

deep structure elaboration

the linguistic relativity hypothesis

47. The communication between honeybees would not be classified as language because ____________.

bees are not animals

bee communication seems to be instinctual

bees do not use a spoken or auditory communication system

all of these

none of these

48. Let’s say we could teach a dolphin to understand the difference between the sentences “The parrot kissed the dolphin” and “The dolphin kissed the parrot.” If this were demonstrated, it might mean the dolphin had an understanding of ____________.

phonemes

morphemes

syntax

all of these

none of these

49. At the current time, which statement is true about our knowledge of whether animals can use humanlike language?

It has been clearly shown that animals cannot use humanlike language.

All animal communication is instinctual and, thus, is not language.

Only primates, like monkeys and chimps, show any sign of language-like behavior.

Only mammals have the potential to develop language that will be recognizable as humanlike.

It is still unclear if animals can show humanlike language at any level of development.

50. You are worried that your aging father might develop senile dementia. What advice might you want to give to him?

“Stop reading, as it will tire out your brain.”

“Start a program of extreme physical exercise to push more blood through your brain.”

“Start reading more, doing puzzles, getting involved in a hobby to exercise your brain.”

Each of these activities has the potential to help slow the development of dementia.

Nothing will help, so don’t bother to suggest anything.

 

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